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People Who've Known A Murderer Describe What They Were Really Like

People Who've Known A Murderer Describe What They Were Really Like
Bill Oxford/Unsplash

There are people in this world who have, for whatever reason, taken another's' life. For some it's a tragedy, and a hero for others. Some people didn't even know they were talking to a murderer until later.

How can you tell if someone is a murderer in the first place? They can seem just like regular people.

So VentSauxe went to Ask Reddit to find out what that experience was like.

VentSauxe asked the question:

"People who have met murderers, what were they like?"

What's most fascinating is the stories when we these people would be locked away forever are still out in life to this very day.

Dodged a bullet.

"I once accidentally scratched a car on a parking lot. When I went to find the owner to sort it out, (a friend lived there, he told me which door to knock) an old (about 60 yrs old) sweet tiny lady opened the door. She was really cool about the incident, told me not to worry about it and I went on with my day."

"Found out later that this woman had apparently been a part of several murders in the 80's where the victims had been chopped to pieces and stuffed into trash bags."

"Thanks for giving me a heads up several hours after it was necessary, unnamed friend."

- Randers420

"'Been a part'?"

"How was she involved? A suspect or what?"

- AmazingAd2765

"She was one of multiple (3 IIRC) perpetrators involved in these murders. I unfortunately don't have any more details, but I remember there were at least 3 or 4 murders."

"This is a second hand story from 5+ years ago, so take everything I say with a few grains of salt."

- Randers420

"How was she not in prison though? I mean you definitely dodged a bullet."

- VentSauxe

"Quite literally perhaps.Our justice system is disturbingly loose, especially regarding violent crimes. Apparently a "life" sentence means 12 years over here. (double checked, no set length for a life sentence, on average they serve 14 yrs)"

"Since these murders happened in the 80's, approximately 30 years before I met her, she could've served 2 life sentences. I'm just going to assume for my sanity's sake she did at least 10 years. Sadly I have no way to confirm if she served any time at all, or if these murders even really happened."

- Randers420

Not surprising.

"I have a relative who murdered someone and I saw him a few times decades before that when we were kids. He was a bully. I'm not surprised he turned out to be a murderer. He cheated on his wife and got the girl pregnant. She was going to tell his wife and he killed her."

- I_am_Mog

Was it justified?

"I owned a local bar and there was a couple who would come in about three times a week since they only lived around the corner. Both in their early sixties. He would occasionally come alone and sit on the patio and read his newspaper while having a drink. I would talk to them both together and him alone. Super nice ,friendly and great senses of humour."

"I learned that he killed his abusive father when he was nine and was in juvenile detention until being released at sixteen. It didn't change my opinion of him in the least."

- ppkgga

"I think your experience highlights the difference in situations surrounding the crimes. He was probably in living hell so its, [in my opinion], justified, whereas someone that has killed in true cold blood or taken away a life for no apparent reason does not deserve sympathy or kindness, again all in my opinion."

- lowhangingfruit12

"It is very possible could be considered self defense or likely would not be pursued heavily given the circumstances. There was a good case that highlights this from I think Texas like a decade ago. A dad came home and found a tutor in the process of molesting his son. He either beat him to death or very very close and was never charged as the DA said and I agree, 'he was a father defending his son.' This does not obviously happen everyday but I think it is an excellent use of discretion on the part of the DA."


No regrets for revenge.

"I used have a buddy I met through work that went to prison for 25 years for killing the man that assaulted his little sister. He was a super chill person, he had no regrets about it all."

- Timshe

"He will probably get on pretty well all things considered. Most inmates will show him respect for his actions. The officers will like him too even if they aren't allowed to show it. I'm sure they all imagined being in that position of it was their little sister or daughter."

- Nuttinwrong

"Agreed. From what I've heard, rapists aren't treated well in jail so with what he's done, he will be alright."

- Operator__

He met the man that killed his father.

"Saw my dad's murderer in court. He smirked right at my younger brother when my little brother made eye contact with him."

"I think that should say enough."

"They say it's 'life time imprisonment' for his charge of second degree murder but really, he gets parole after 20 years."

- halfastormyevening

"Yeah those are the kinds of people who are stains to society. I hope your family's ok."

- VentSauxe

"I hope he's off the streets in in prison for the rest of his life."

- Duckyboi10

Best Excuses For Late Assignments That Were Actually True | George Takei’s Oh Myyy

"Write the parole board about the incident in court. There is no way he'll ever get parole after that."

- D1rty87

"You can even attend in certain situations. Depending on the state I would visit their parole board site and read about your rights as a victim."

"Here is a a really good guide that gives an overview of rights by state, looks like it's from 2019 so fairly recent. This shows what kind of rights you have (notification, ability to write or ability to be present) for most inmate circumstance changes (early release, furlough, clemency, escape, death etc)."

"Also, once his 20 years are up there will be a few parole hearing every x amount of years so it's usually not a one-and-done. Here is an excerpt as an example:"

"For some inmates, federal law requires a parole hearing every two years. Many inmates have several parole hearings before they are found suitable for release by the Parole Commission. Some parole-eligible inmates are never released to parole supervision."

- JBits001

Not what you'd expect.

"He was an angry drunk. When he wasn't drunk, he was funny and gentlemanly. He ended up murdering my mom."

- bluegrassmommy

"That ending caught me off guard, I'm so sorry."

- memelord263

"Please tell me that guy is in prison for life without the possibility of parole. I'm so sorry for your loss. May she rest in peace. Stay strong. My heart goes out to you and your family. Hope the guy gets what's coming to him. Hope you and your family got justice and that you guys are doing ok."

- Awesomejuggler20

"No. He only spent a year. He still lives in the same house where he shot her to death. We never got justice. He took away my best friend and a grandma to my kids."


Housing a escapee.

"An escaped convicted murderer stayed in our student house (our group took him in while drunk after he approached us claiming to be a former student who missed his bus)."

"He was small nerdy and awkward. Funniest part was us laying down the law not to eat our food just before we left him sleeping in the common room."

"It was sometime later we connected that he'd escaped that night and was convicted of murdering his parents."

- Jiltedjohn

The Redditor continued the story in a comment:

"In our drunken haze we were suspicious that something was awry, he was wearing an assortment of uncoordinated light clothing and it was in the middle of winter, he claimed he attended the university but had no idea about the campus layout, the classes he claimed he took didn't match up, etc."

"That all said we were too tired to figure it out and just crashed in our rooms, by the morning he was gone."

"We didn't realize he was an escapee until some time later, one of our housemates who hadn't gone out that night with us, casually asked at dinner who the f was that person was eating cereal at 4am. He'd assumed it was a friend of ours but 'he looked liked that escaped murderer that was on the news.'"

"We kept quiet."

"We never told the police or even the rest of the house what happened and he was caught shortly after."

- Jiltedjohn

"Yeah, you see, this is why I don't pick up hitchhikers. I know, different situation, but same idea."

"This just reinforced that rule in my head."

- Nancy_Bluerain

"The irony is that our house didn't even volunteer to take him in, after the murderer gave us the sob story of old times missing the bus etc., one of our friends from a different house said 'you can go stay at JiltedJohn's,' we were just too spaced out to say f no."

- Jiltedjohn

A county jail worker's perspective.

We left part of this comment out because of the extremely graphic nature.

"I worked at a county jail that housed federal inmates and also a state prison. Most of my time at the state prison I spent in a unit that housed inmates who had committed serious offenses like murder and also had some kind of mental health issue like schizophrenia or anything like that. It was one of two maximum-security units in my state.

"It goes without saying that all people, and by extension murderers, are different. Some show regret for what they've done while others are completely remorseless. One cried at night sometimes because he felt bad he'd killed a man and he knew that he would probably do it again if let out due to a number of mental health issues."

"Some are incredibly aggressive and openly violent. Almost more animal than human. They will take any opportunity presented to assault treatment, medical, or security staff. These aren't the scary ones though. I would always try to explain this to new officers I was training. The ones who are known for assaulting staff and are openly malevolent are intimidating to new officers because they're often big, loud, and show an appetite for violence."

"But, because of that you're always on guard around them. There's always extra officers present when those inmates are out of their cells and you know what to expect when you open that door. The scary ones are those that are feeble looking, smallish, and well spoken. They don't use profanity or have lots of tattoos. They aren't physically intimidating. They are always yes sir and no sir and greet you when you come on the unit for the day. They are also the ones who will be friendly with you for months while they plan to assault you or even attempt to kill you. This happened to a friend of mine. He was slashed with a sharpened toothbrush in his neck. 97 stitches and missed his jugular vein by 4 millimeters."

"Keep in mind these are the worst of the worst in my state and most of what I've said doesn't really apply to the kind of guy that has one too many beers and causes a DUI death. I guess if you want real specifics you'd have to specify what kind of killer."

- Nuttinwrong

A man on the run.

"The name he went by was Sid. I didn't know much about him except that he came from out West, he was quiet, Mexican and a hard worker. I was running a tire shop with a max of two other employees and some nights it was just me (27F) and Sid closing the shop."

"At one point Sid, who had only worked at my shop for about a month, stopped showing up. We had a high turnover rate, so I thought nothing of it. Months later a pair of detectives show up at my shop with some pictures of a man that looked familiar. It was Sid, of course! They wouldn't tell me why they were looking for him, but a quick Google search pulled up his warrants for arrest in several states, including Arkansas and Texas. He had murder charges for several people, not to mention firearms charges and theft. Turns out, when my company hires someone, they only check your background for local warrants, not federal , so my guy truly worked just long enough to round up a couple paychecks, and then disappeared off to who knows where!"

- 69BeesInMyKnees

Many of these stories brought up questions in our justice system. Who get's to decide who is a hero and who is a villain? When they are back in society, can we justify their crimes when they integrate back?

It makes you wonder about our societies moral compass and how we decide who we want in community with us.

"Want to "know" more? Never miss another big, odd, funny, or heartbreaking moment again. Sign up for the Knowable newsletter here."

People Reveal The Weirdest Thing About Themselves

Reddit user Isitjustmedownhere asked: 'Give an example; how weird are you really?'

Let's get one thing straight: no one is normal. We're all weird in our own ways, and that is actually normal.

Of course, that doesn't mean we don't all have that one strange trait or quirk that outweighs all the other weirdness we possess.

For me, it's the fact that I'm almost 30 years old, and I still have an imaginary friend. Her name is Sarah, she has red hair and green eyes, and I strongly believe that, since I lived in India when I created her and there were no actual people with red hair around, she was based on Daphne Blake from Scooby-Doo.

I also didn't know the name Sarah when I created her, so that came later. I know she's not really there, hence the term 'imaginary friend,' but she's kind of always been around. We all have conversations in our heads; mine are with Sarah. She keeps me on task and efficient.

My mom thinks I'm crazy that I still have an imaginary friend, and writing about her like this makes me think I may actually be crazy, but I don't mind. As I said, we're all weird, and we all have that one trait that outweighs all the other weirdness.

Redditors know this all too well and are eager to share their weird traits.

It all started when Redditor Isitjustmedownhere asked:

"Give an example; how weird are you really?"

Monsters Under My Bed

"My bed doesn't touch any wall."

"Edit: I guess i should clarify im not rich."

– Practical_Eye_3600

"Gosh the monsters can get you from any angle then."

– bikergirlr7

"At first I thought this was a flex on how big your bedroom is, but then I realized you're just a psycho 😁"

– zenOFiniquity8

Can You See Why?

"I bought one of those super-powerful fans to dry a basement carpet. Afterwards, I realized that it can point straight up and that it would be amazing to use on myself post-shower. Now I squeegee my body with my hands, step out of the shower and get blasted by a wide jet of room-temp air. I barely use my towel at all. Wife thinks I'm weird."

– KingBooRadley


"In 1990 when I was 8 years old and bored on a field trip, I saw a black Oldsmobile Cutlass driving down the street on a hot day to where you could see that mirage like distortion from the heat on the road. I took a “snapshot” by blinking my eyes and told myself “I wonder how long I can remember this image” ….well."

– AquamarineCheetah

"Even before smartphones, I always take "snapshots" by blinking my eyes hoping I'll remember every detail so I can draw it when I get home. Unfortunately, I may have taken so much snapshots that I can no longer remember every detail I want to draw."

"Makes me think my "memory is full.""

– Reasonable-Pirate902

Same, Same

"I have eaten the same lunch every day for the past 4 years and I'm not bored yet."

– OhhGoood

"How f**king big was this lunch when you started?"

– notmyrealnam3

Not Sure Who Was Weirder

"Had a line cook that worked for us for 6 months never said much. My sous chef once told him with no context, "Baw wit da baw daw bang daw bang diggy diggy." The guy smiled, left, and never came back."

– Frostygrunt


"I pace around my house for hours listening to music imagining that I have done all the things I simply lack the brain capacity to do, or in some really bizarre scenarios, I can really get immersed in these imaginations sometimes I don't know if this is some form of schizophrenia or what."

– RandomSharinganUser

"I do the same exact thing, sometimes for hours. When I was young it would be a ridiculous amount of time and many years later it’s sort of trickled off into almost nothing (almost). It’s weird but I just thought it’s how my brain processes sh*t."

– Kolkeia

If Only

"Even as an adult I still think that if you are in a car that goes over a cliff; and right as you are about to hit the ground if you jump up you can avoid the damage and will land safely. I know I'm wrong. You shut up. I'm not crying."

– ShotCompetition2593

Pet Food

"As a kid I would snack on my dog's Milkbones."

– drummerskillit

"Haha, I have a clear memory of myself doing this as well. I was around 3 y/o. Needless to say no one was supervising me."

– Isitjustmedownhere

"When I was younger, one of my responsibilities was to feed the pet fish every day. Instead, I would hide under the futon in the spare bedroom and eat the fish food."

– -GateKeep-

My Favorite Subject

"I'm autistic and have always had a thing for insects. My neurotypical best friend and I used to hang out at this local bar to talk to girls, back in the late 90s. One time he claimed that my tendency to circle conversations back to insects was hurting my game. The next time we went to that bar (with a few other friends), he turned and said sternly "No talking about bugs. Or space, or statistics or other bullsh*t but mainly no bugs." I felt like he was losing his mind over nothing."

"It was summer, the bar had its windows open. Our group hit it off with a group of young ladies, We were all chatting and having a good time. I was talking to one of these girls, my buddy was behind her facing away from me talking to a few other people."

"A cloudless sulphur flies in and lands on little thing that holds coasters."

"Cue Jordan Peele sweating gif."

"The girl notices my tension, and asks if I am looking at the leaf. "Actually, that's a lepidoptera called..." I looked at the back of my friend's head, he wasn't looking, "I mean a butterfly..." I poked it and it spread its wings the girl says "oh that's a BUG?!" and I still remember my friend turning around slowly to look at me with chastisement. The ONE thing he told me not to do."

"I was 21, and was completely not aware that I already had a rep for being an oddball. It got worse from there."

– Phormicidae

*Teeth Chatter*

"I bite ice cream sometimes."


"That's how I am with popsicles. My wife shudders every single time."


Never Speak Of This

"I put ice in my milk."


"You should keep that kind of thing to yourself. Even when asked."

– We-R-Doomed

"There's some disturbing sh*t in this thread, but this one takes the cake."

– RatonaMuffin

More Than Super Hearing

"I can hear the television while it's on mute."

– Tira13e

"What does it say to you, child?"

– Mama_Skip


"I put mustard on my omelettes."

– Deleted User


– NotCrustOr-filling

Evened Up

"Whenever I say a word and feel like I used a half of my mouth more than the other half, I have to even it out by saying the word again using the other half of my mouth more. If I don't do it correctly, that can go on forever until I feel it's ok."

"I do it silently so I don't creep people out."

– LesPaltaX

"That sounds like a symptom of OCD (I have it myself). Some people with OCD feel like certain actions have to be balanced (like counting or making sure physical movements are even). You should find a therapist who specializes in OCD, because they can help you."

– MoonlightKayla

I totally have the same need for things to be balanced! Guess I'm weird and a little OCD!

Close up face of a woman in bed, staring into the camera
Photo by Jen Theodore

Experiencing death is a fascinating and frightening idea.

Who doesn't want to know what is waiting for us on the other side?

But so many of us want to know and then come back and live a little longer.

It would be so great to be sure there is something else.

But the whole dying part is not that great, so we'll have to rely on other people's accounts.

Redditor AlaskaStiletto wanted to hear from everyone who has returned to life, so they asked:

"Redditors who have 'died' and come back to life, what did you see?"


Happy Good Vibes GIF by Major League SoccerGiphy

"My dad's heart stopped when he had a heart attack and he had to be brought back to life. He kept the paper copy of the heart monitor which shows he flatlined. He said he felt an overwhelming sensation of peace, like nothing he had felt before."



"I had surgical complications in 2010 that caused a great deal of blood loss. As a result, I had extremely low blood pressure and could barely stay awake. I remember feeling like I was surrounded by loved ones who had passed. They were in a circle around me and I knew they were there to guide me onwards. I told them I was not ready to go because my kids needed me and I came back."

"My nurse later said she was afraid she’d find me dead every time she came into the room."

"It took months, and blood transfusions, but I recovered."


Take Me Back

"Overwhelming peace and happiness. A bright airy and floating feeling. I live a very stressful life. Imagine finding out the person you have had a crush on reveals they have the same feelings for you and then you win the lotto later that day - that was the feeling I had."

"I never feared death afterward and am relieved when I hear of people dying after suffering from an illness."



The Light Minnie GIF by (G)I-DLEGiphy

"I had a heart surgery with near-death experience, for me at least (well the possibility that those effects are caused by morphine is also there) I just saw black and nothing else but it was warm and I had such inner peace, its weird as I sometimes still think about it and wish this feeling of being so light and free again."


This is why I hate surgery.

You just never know.



"More of a near-death experience. I was electrocuted. I felt like I was in a deep hole looking straight up in the sky. My life flashed before me. Felt sad for my family, but I had a deep sense of peace."



"Nursing in the ICU, we’ve had people try to die on us many times during the years, some successfully. One guy stood out to me. His heart stopped. We called a code, are working on him, and suddenly he comes to. We hadn’t vented him yet, so he was able to talk, and he started screaming, 'Don’t let them take me, don’t let them take me, they are coming,' he was scared and yelling."

"Then he yelled a little more, as we tried to calm him down, he screamed, 'No, No,' and gestured towards the end of the bed, and died again. We didn’t get him back. It was seriously creepy. We called his son to tell him the news, and the son said basically, 'Good, he was an SOB.'”



"My sister died and said it was extremely peaceful. She said it was very loud like a train station and lots of talking and she was stuck in this area that was like a curtain with lots of beautiful colors (colors that you don’t see in real life according to her) a man told her 'He was sorry, but she had to go back as it wasn’t her time.'"


"I had a really similar experience except I was in an endless garden with flowers that were colors I had never seen before. It was quiet and peaceful and a woman in a dress looked at me, shook her head, and just said 'Not yet.' As I was coming back, it was extremely loud, like everyone in the world was trying to talk all at once. It was all very disorienting but it changed my perspective on life!"


The Fog

"I was in a gray fog with a girl who looked a lot like a young version of my grandmother (who was still alive) but dressed like a pioneer in the 1800s she didn't say anything but kept pulling me towards an opening in the wall. I kept refusing to go because I was so tired."

"I finally got tired of her nagging and went and that's when I came to. I had bled out during a c-section and my heart could not beat without blood. They had to deliver the baby and sew up the bleeders. refill me with blood before they could restart my heart so, like, at least 12 minutes gone."


Through the Walls

"My spouse was dead for a couple of minutes one miserable night. She maintains that she saw nothing, but only heard people talking about her like through a wall. The only thing she remembers for absolute certain was begging an ER nurse that she didn't want to die."

"She's quite alive and well today."


Well let's all be happy to be alive.

It seems to be all we have.

Man's waist line
Santhosh Vaithiyanathan/Unsplash

Trying to lose weight is a struggle understood by many people regardless of size.

The goal of reaching a healthy weight may seem unattainable, but with diet and exercise, it can pay off through persistence and discipline.

Seeing the pounds gradually drop off can also be a great motivator and incentivize people to stay the course.

Those who've achieved their respective weight goals shared their experiences when Redditor apprenti8455 asked:

"People who lost a lot of weight, what surprises you the most now?"

Redditors didn't see these coming.

Shiver Me Timbers

"I’m always cold now!"

– Telrom_1

"I had a coworker lose over 130 pounds five or six years ago. I’ve never seen him without a jacket on since."

– r7ndom

"140 lbs lost here starting just before COVID, I feel like that little old lady that's always cold, damn this top comment was on point lmao."

– mr_remy

Drawing Concern

"I lost 100 pounds over a year and a half but since I’m old(70’s) it seems few people comment on it because (I think) they think I’m wasting away from some terminal illness."

– dee-fondy

"Congrats on the weight loss! It’s honestly a real accomplishment 🙂"

"Working in oncology, I can never comment on someone’s weight loss unless I specifically know it was on purpose, regardless of their age. I think it kind of ruffles feathers at times, but like I don’t want to congratulate someone for having cancer or something. It’s a weird place to be in."

– LizardofDeath

Unleashing Insults

"I remember when I lost the first big chunk of weight (around 50 lbs) it was like it gave some people license to talk sh*t about the 'old' me. Old coworkers, friends, made a lot of not just negative, but harsh comments about what I used to look like. One person I met after the big loss saw a picture of me prior and said, 'Wow, we wouldn’t even be friends!'”

"It wasn’t extremely common, but I was a little alarmed by some of the attention. My weight has been up and down since then, but every time I gain a little it gets me a little down thinking about those things people said."

– alanamablamaspama

Not Everything Goes After Losing Weight

"The loose skin is a bit unexpected."

– KeltarCentauri

"I haven’t experienced it myself, but surgery to remove skin takes a long time to recover. Longer than bariatric surgery and usually isn’t covered by insurance unless you have both."

– KatMagic1977

"It definitely does take a long time to recover. My Dad dropped a little over 200 pounds a few years back and decided to go through with skin removal surgery to deal with the excess. His procedure was extensive, as in he had skin taken from just about every part of his body excluding his head, and he went through hell for weeks in recovery, and he was bedridden for a lot of it."

– Jaew96

These Redditors shared their pleasantly surprising experiences.


"I can buy clothes in any store I want."

– WaySavvyD

"When I lost weight I was dying to go find cute, smaller clothes and I really struggled. As someone who had always been restricted to one or two stores that catered to plus-sized clothing, a full mall of shops with items in my size was daunting. Too many options and not enough knowledge of brands that were good vs cheap. I usually went home pretty frustrated."

– ganache98012

No More Symptoms

"Lost about 80 pounds in the past year and a half, biggest thing that I’ve noticed that I haven’t seen mentioned on here yet is my acid reflux and heartburn are basically gone. I used to be popping tums every couple hours and now they just sit in the medicine cabinet collecting dust."

– colleennicole93

Expanding Capabilities

"I'm all for not judging people by their appearance and I recognise that there are unhealthy, unachievable beauty standards, but one thing that is undeniable is that I can just do stuff now. Just stamina and flexibility alone are worth it, appearance is tertiary at best."

– Ramblonius

People Change Their Tune

"How much nicer people are to you."

"My feet weren't 'wide' they were 'fat.'"

– LiZZygsu

"Have to agree. Lost 220 lbs, people make eye contact and hold open doors and stuff"

"And on the foot thing, I also lost a full shoe size numerically and also wear regular width now 😅"

– awholedamngarden

It's gonna take some getting used to.

Bones Everywhere

"Having bones. Collarbones, wrist bones, knee bones, hip bones, ribs. I have so many bones sticking out everywhere and it’s weird as hell."

– Princess-Pancake-97

"I noticed the shadow of my ribs the other day and it threw me, there’s a whole skeleton in here."

– bekastrange

Knee Pillow

"Right?! And they’re so … pointy! Now I get why people sleep with pillows between their legs - the knee bones laying on top of each other (side sleeper here) is weird and jarring."

– snic2030

"I lost only 40 pounds within the last year or so. I’m struggling to relate to most of these comments as I feel like I just 'slimmed down' rather than dropped a ton. But wow, the pillow between the knees at night. YES! I can relate to this. I think a lot of my weight was in my thighs. I never needed to do this up until recently."

– Strongbad23

More Mobility

"I’ve lost 100 lbs since 2020. It’s a collection of little things that surprise me. For at least 10 years I couldn’t put on socks, or tie my shoes. I couldn’t bend over and pick something up. I couldn’t climb a ladder to fix something. Simple things like that I can do now that fascinate me."

"Edit: Some additional little things are sitting in a chair with arms, sitting in a booth in a restaurant, being able to shop in a normal store AND not needing to buy the biggest size there, being able to easily wipe my butt, and looking down and being able to see my penis."

– dma1965

People making significant changes, whether for mental or physical health, can surely find a newfound perspective on life.

But they can also discover different issues they never saw coming.

That being said, overcoming any challenge in life is laudable, especially if it leads to gaining confidence and ditching insecurities.