Life is full of suspicions and theories that we'll never be able to prove in concrete but are just obvious. I'm not talking about wild conspiracy, but thoughts that make sense without a shadow of a doubt. Just lacking tangible evidence. Which can sound like wild conspiracy.
Think about aliens, ghosts, unsolved murders, all situations we know we have validation, but... do we have solid receipts? The everlasting issue. Let's break it all down.
Redditor u/Lazy-Ape wanted to dive into what we know deep down are facts, no matter what others say, by asking:
What are you convinced is true but cannot prove?
I don't know where to begin. I know who killed JonBenet. But I can't say. But we all know, and we can't say. It's no theory, but we have no receipts.
"There is some scam going on with power companies in the US. The colder months when I literally don't turn on the AC at all (electric for heat and cold) is basically the same price... I called and asked them if they are averaging it and they say no... someone is lying."
"That Tom Holland "spoiling thing" and some "leaks" are all a marketing strategy. And it works!"
"I'm not a fan of superhero movies but i saw him idk why my algorithm did that and yes you are right, you have to be next-level stupid to be spoiling stuff accidentally, one time I understand but not again and again. He is not a kid (although he looks like one)."
"The real Sonic movie was already finished. Then they put some extra time in to make the bad sonic trailer. The outrage it cost was the best publicity they could get for the movie."
The X Files
"The evidence for aliens to exist is so strong that it is not really a question of their existence. Look up Drake's equation if you haven't. Just consider 100-400 billion stars in just our galaxy, the milky way. And then 100 billion other galaxies in the observable universe."
"Each star has a habitable zone and some have Rocky planets in their habitable zone. There are many forms of life and the are theories about forms of life that are not carbon based either. There is no doubt there is alien life. Now intelligent alien life is going to be much much rarer, but still there is a high probability of intelligent aliens. Look up Fermi paradox."
Show me the...Pay Day Money GIF by MOST EXPENSIVESTGiphy
"Money can buy happiness."
"This one's been proved. I don't remember the numbers but people are happier the more they make up to a certain dollar amount. If nothing else money buys peace of mind, which is the next best thing."
Life is a mess of confusion. Can any of us prove anything? Well yes, money DOES buy happiness. That is just truth. Go out and get some.
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"That earth is simply a 5th grade science project for some kid, to whom we are the size and importance of fruit flies. Our entire existence and history amounts to about 5 days in her time."
"Google many worlds theory. Worlds is a misnomer, if iirc. Basically it's a solution/interpretation of quantum mechanical wave function I think (not an expert). It's much more complicated than that and a lot of it very sciencey. And very philosophical. Don't get surprised if you get an epiphany. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qm-manyworlds/ Here you go , it isn't deep quantum mechanics but it does do a nice job of explaining it."
"Ten-ish years ago Google offered a free 411 service using voice-to-text. You spoke the person or company you wished to call (and perhaps added the address) and the Google computer would respond with the information. They stopped the "experiment" or "beta" or whatever they called it after 3-4 years. The conspiracy theory? Google now uses that voice recognition for their Google Assistant devises and services. AND has sold the technology to the government to improve wiretaps and eavesdropping."
I WANT TO MAKE SURE IT FITS!!!
"I'm lowkey convinced there's a clothing industry conspiracy to keep physical retail outlets in business. There's an unspoken mutual agreement to make sure everyone uses their own proprietary clothing sizes. That makes it impossible to transition clothes shopping to a fully online experience."
"Clothing shops suck. The selection is garbage. They are always short on certain sizes. They are always understaffed and it takes forever to grab something from the backroom. It always takes forever to go through checkout. People still go to physical clothes shop though. What's the number 1 reason they give? I WANT TO MAKE SURE IT FITS!"
The King!elvis presley GIF by MauditGiphy
"Elvis Presley lived in Las Vegas impersonation himself from 1978 to 2013, when he actually died. Easiest case of witness protection ever."
Oh Elvis. Just say hi. Keep strong in your fortitudes. Find all of your evidence. Prove life.
Defending your thesis is no joke. I've had friends crack up while preparing. It plays out like an episode of "Defend Your Life." In many cases you are defending your life. Your thesis is more than words on a page, it's a fundamental belief that you've been working towards for years. Everything learned and gained has had a part to play in the birth of that brief. So it can be gut wrenching and life altering when you find yourself at a loss in it's moment of reckoning.Redditor u/dexMiloyev wanted to know about the times as a student when many of us were left.... stumped by asking.... Doctoral candidates who couldn't defend their thesis, what happened?
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One of my colleagues in grad school didn't finish his dissertation. Our advisor moved universities and told him he wasn't invited.
My friend had a nervous breakdown from which he never recovered. His wife divorced him because he spent all day catatonic in bed for months, and they had two young children to take care of.
Remind me Later
I've only heard of one or two people who didn't pass in the 6 or so years I was in grad school. They just worked on whatever their committee said to expand on and re-did their defense at a later date. Your advisor really shouldn't let you get to the point where you're defending and there's a chance you won't pass. It's more common that people will Masters out or go ABD, but not outright fail.
20 Years Later....
In the early 1970s, my father was an Ed.D candidate, and his thesis was on the topic of self-pacing computerized instruction (at the high school level). He taught himself the Basic programming language and everything, and was quite confident of success.
His thesis was summarily rejected because "there will NEVER be computers in the classroom" other than postsecondary computer science curriculums.
20 years later computers were everywhere in our schools, and you could go to any big box store and buy educational software similar to what my father had envisioned.
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While in graduate school, a professor at my university came up with an idea to write his thesis on. He told his advisor, who basically laughed him out of the room and told him it was a ridiculous idea. A year later, he learned that his advisor had stolen his idea and written a paper on it to be published in a major scientific journal. The student (my current professor) then left the program in disgust and just finished with a master's instead. Pretty good physics professor though.
I knew a PhD student in Math who discovered halfway through her doctorate that the problem she was working on to get her PhD had just been solved by someone else. She was able to work with her advisor to find a way to make the work she applied to that problem be applicable to a similar one. She eventually earned her PhD.
dead to rights....
I have a friend who is a tenured professor at a major university. He submitted a proposal to a funding agency. He later discovered that the program manager had not only stolen his idea, but even reused substantial amounts of text from his proposal in a publication. It turned out that the same guy was in the process of being hired by my friend's university for a leadership role.
Even though he had the guy dead to rights, and my friend's position was fairly secure, the politics of the situation made him too fearful to mention it to anyone.
I can only imagine what might happen to a mere student who accused a professor of this kind of misconduct. The sad truth is, even if the student had unimpeachable evidence, I think a lot of people would choose to obstruct and bury it and destroy the student's life rather than burn a colleague.
We have a family friend who was in a PhD program that basically got disbanded. Like his advisor and several other faculty members got fired. I believe they ended up giving him two master's degrees, Which is nothing to sneeze at but he did the work for a PhD.
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From my experience in grad school, your committee is there every step along the way.
You cant even start until you have an approved thesis prospectus. In this structure, you know if you're ready to defend or not. A member of my cohort was told prior to her thesis defense that she wouldn't pass, so they rescheduled for later.
It's exceedingly rare to outright fail a defense as others have mentioned. One person in my department failed their final defense because they froze up and couldn't even answer the easiest questions from their committee. Most people I know of who didn't complete their defense either left voluntarily with master's degrees for various reasons or failed out for silly, preventable reasons like plagiarism or not turning in their written qualifying exams on time.
Really Fool?new girl facepalm GIF by HULUGiphy
Had a Chinese doctoral student in the program I worked for, who was intentionally putting off and screwing up his thesis process. He only had a student visa, and didn't want to go back to China.
Don't be Salty
I know a guy that eventually got his PhD, but it took extra work and encouragement. Poor guy. His adviser left for another university and forbid him from publishing like 2/3 of his work/data. He failed by trying to honor the former adviser's wishes; he was so depressed and going to just accept it. I was freaking livid, and so was everyone else with a graduate degree that heard about it. In the end he presented all his work, got his PhD, and left for a postdoc. His former adviser was told to pound sand. I'm still a little salty.
"all but defense"
OP, since you're an undergrad perhaps this is new: no competent advisor will let a student defend without meeting requirements. It would be a huge embarrassment for the advisor and committee to fail a candidate at the defense, because it implies they didn't do their supervisory job prior to the defense. Good advisors are invested in helping people in their group succeed.
Nevertheless, not everyone who starts the program will finish. People can drop out for every imaginable reason. From failing to meet the requirements for a PhD (e.g., not producing original work of substantial impact), to losing interest in the topic, medical problems, having problems with their advisor, getting an industry job, deciding to move...
For completeness: the impact of the original research and publications generated during the PhD are the key to a solid defense. Sometimes people put "all but defense" in their resume. This means they took classes and did not defend. But the point of a doctorate is not to take classes, but rather to contribute to the state of the art.
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I went to post grad school with a few who couldn't or who timed out. They are known as all but dissertation or ABD. They typically find work relating to their masters degree... or they bartend. Those are literally the top two options I've witnessed!
The thesis directly opposed the main premise of the field at the time, the board had a political stake in preserving the status quo. Went to another school and they immediately were just like, yep, here's your PhD. Years later, the original school's board was found to be taking oil money on the side.
Failing the defence (or not being allowed to defend) happens, but rarely. What is far more common is failing the comprehensive exams that most PhD programs require. Comps usually happen before or around the time of proposal approval. They consist (for me at least) a reading list of c.260 books that you have to complete three written exams on and two oral exams. It's not uncommon to fail them and not be allowed to continue.
Not me, but my friend at her quals. She walked in, and the committee said, "We've reviewed your work, and we can tell that you won't pass this. Therefore, we're not going to give it to you so that you don't have it on your records that you failed. Withdraw from the program."
I was crushed, and it wasn't even me.
Giving a serious answer here...
If your dissertation advisor is any good whatsoever, they will tell you when you are ready to defend and not allow you to defend until that point. For this reason, it is rare that a doctoral candidate ever fails to defend. The only times I have heard of it happening are when a student insists on defending even though their advisor says they are not ready, with predictable results.
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I have always been a horrible procrastinator and did not have the demeanor to complete a PhD. Did great in the coursework first two years then failed out after the third year. Now I make a lot of money as a quant.
Give me my backpack...
There was a guy in my program before I started (early 2000's) that had ALL of his data on one flash drive. He lost it when his backpack was stolen. Rumour had it he almost committed suicide after loosing like 3 years of work. He never finished and I think he went into a trade. Probably makes more money this way so good on him.
In the Netherlands...
My grandfather did not have to defend his thesis because he did not have to make one. In the Netherlands one could do doctoral by defending a number of assertions/propositions in front of the professors. So a real oral exam. He studied law, so he had to make a list of about 60 topics in different fields of law (criminal, civil, bankruptcy, merchant, sea etc.) like e.g. 'victims of violence have enough/not enough ways of getting compensation' and was questioned in depth about those. Apparently he did well, got the doctorate, and 25 years later Leiden University gave him a special diploma commemorating his doctorate.
A good conspiracy theory has just enough grains of truth in it, and is just this side of impossible enough that maybe, just maybe it might be plausible.
It should also probably not be something easily disprovable (looking at you, flat earth.)
One Reddit user asked:
... and honestly, a lot of this makes sense. Hmmm.
Manufactured ConspiraciesAlways Sunny Fx GIFGiphy
Conspiracies are being actively manufactured and promoted as a way to hide actual bad stuff.
These days it is hard to actually hide something - a single leak and everything is all over the internet next day. However, if you make sure that internet is full of conspiracy theories, it is easy to dismiss any leak as 'more nutjob stuff'.
If MK-Ultra leaked today, would anybody except for most hardcore conspiracy theorists believe it?
An English King In Italy
I believe Edward II escaped and went to Italy. He was not laid to rest at his very public funeral.
His son, Edward III, had reason to believe his father was alive and there is some truth to the Fieschi letter. Mostly, I think Edward III's relations with the Pope convinced me.
I also think the circumstances of the funeral arrangements were pretty suspicious. The variety of deaths Edward II was rumored to die don't exactly convince me he died at Berkeley Castle.
Oh and there's a part of Italy with an oral tradition that they once had an English king for some years.
People are taught wrong information about nutrition on purpose.
Definitely true. I read a rage inducing book (Unsavory Truth by Marion Nestle) that talked about this. There are companies in the food industry that basically go out and shop around for "scientists" to link their product to good health, and one of the examples was how the strawberry industry was shopping around for studies linking strawberries to positive health effects. A few days after reading that, I saw an article linking strawberries to good digestive health.
Also, I once saw an article about how ER doctors who snacked on nuts were healthier than those who didn't. At the very bottom of the article, buried in a wall of text was "this study was funded by the nut growers of America"
The Coup And The Crackdown
The 2016 Turkish coup d'etat attempt to overthrow Erdogan was planned by ... Erdogan.
It was such a badly organized coup that failed so easily while Erdogan's support was on peak. No way someone else planned this coup with the goal to succeed. The coup made it possible for Erdogan to crack down on any opposition as well as unpleasant journalists or just anyone who was in his way.
Three Times Is Enemy Action
I could believe that Epstein would kill himself. I could believe that the guards had been online not doing their job of checking on him. I could believe that the cameras in a very important prisoners cell went out of service.
There is no possible way all these things happened on their own at the exact same time.
M16 had a saying Once is happenstance. Twice is coincidence. Three times is enemy action.
I believe that the societal norm of the "American lawn" was propagated to keep us from growing food on our property and keep us consuming.
This is kinda true. The idea of a lawn filled with grass and other non-edible plants was perpetuated by social elites (in the United States and elsewhere) to show others that they were so rich they didn't need to grow their own food. Essentially, they could afford to waste space.
Leave Britney Alonesad britney spears GIFGiphy
Britney Spears is being controlled by the people around her... I don't usually believe in such crazy theories, but there's just something about this one that makes me believe it. She looks and acts like a prisoner, and she's said and done a lot of questionable things. I know it's a crazy one, and I really hope it's not true, but that woman looks so broken...
I'm pretty sure it is. I follow some at least somewhat credible "free Britney" Instagram pages, and they post a lot of news articles, history of the conservatorship, and even the court transcripts. The transcripts I've seen, state that Britney wants to stay in the conservatorship but she wants out of her dad's control and possibly that other chick (Lou I think?), too.
It's even been insinuated in court documents that she doesn't control her social media, either. It would definitely explain all the BIZARRE posts she makes.
I truly can't understand it. As of late, her conservatorship has received media attention, and her fans and even some celebrities have proclaimed "Free Britney".
While I know a judge has to remain as unbiased as possible when making these ruling, the "court of public opinion" will still have an effect. Yet it hasn't on the judge(s) she's gotten.
Now, I don't know all the cold hard facts like the courts do. But on a high level - why does a 37 year old woman need to be controlled at every aspect of her life? It makes zero sense to me.
To me the conspiracy was always that she was actually mentally fine and capable (and always was - where the very public breakdowns prior were bad but not based in mental issues beyond remedy) and didn't need a conservator but was basically being held in one against her will for the money.
It makes no sense to me that the girl is apparently too f*cked up to make even the most minor life choices, but somehow well enough to perform in a successful Vegas show.
Like, if she's mentally incapable, how is she mentally fit to have a high profile career in such a high pressure environment? And how is her Father, who is collecting all the money, not being scrutinized for it?
A Never-Ending Cycle Of Hotdog Eating
Hotdog companies and hotdog bun companies agreed to sell non matching amounts of their products. When you finish all of your hotdogs you will still have buns left over so you will go buy hotdogs for those buns. Thus perpetuating a never-ending cycle of hotdog eating.
Who says they aren't both owned by the same mega corporation?
I won't fall to capitalism! I eat my hotdogs cut up with a fork, like a true adult-baby
The Same Forces
I read a lot of comments months back written by people wondering when Ghislaine was going to "get Epstein'd". Given the nature of her involvement with Epstein and mutual acquaintances and the nature of her actions and decisions, certainly she's as despicable a criminal as Epstein: why is Ghislaine Maxwell still alive?
Ghislaine Maxwell's father, Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch, otherwise known as Robert Maxwell, was a Czech-borne Jewish freedom fighter - he was a Jewish man who fought Nazis and in all likelihood helped secure the existence of the Israeli state early on. That's a pretty big part of understanding his later political, commercial, and (alleged) intelligence connections.
He later turned into a publishing magnate and paper media/publishing powerhouse who was a possible triple-turnaround Mossad-MI6-KGB faux-spy stooge. He defrauded his own corporate empire (resulting in its collapse after his death), and was possibly assassinated before his body was dumped over the side of his yacht, the Lady Ghislaine, while it was berthed in the Canary Islands.
I bet that the same forces that got to Ghislaine's dad are the ones either protecting her, or who have lost interest in her.
Evil is very, very real and it lives among us. There are far too many tv shows, movies, literature and podcasts reporting on so many vile and depraved acts. We all have a few degrees of separation from the topic of murder. We either know someone directly or of someone whose life has been taken in gruesome fashion. And half the time we are all turned into super sleuths with the answer to the crime. If only we could prove it. (One day Carole Baskin)Redditor u/violetgnome wanted to discuss some of humanity's darkest mysteries we maybe able to solve by asking.... What unsolved murder are you sure you have the answer to and what is the answer?
My Mom's murder. The guy who did it killed himself when he discovered the police were investigating him. It never went to court, he killed himself before it could. I know he did it but I can't prove it. Apparently, he must have felt the police could. Including my Mom we know of 5 women he killed, I have no idea how many (if any) are not yet known.
One thing I learned through all this, serial killers are NOT rare, we do not hear about 99% of them.
I have one that haunts me. My cousin's son was shot in cold blood on the streets. My other cousin's husband is a cop and I asked him once if he ever found any leads, and he surprised me by saying he knew 100% who did it, but the suspect was being protected by another corrupt department who was using the murderer for their own reasons and had "accidentally" destroyed the evidence implicating him in our relative's murder.
Pretty sure David Miscavige (leader of the Church of Scientology) killed his wife and covered it up, hence why she hasn't been seen since 2007.
OJ Simpson did it.
Would a guilty man be found with
$8,000 in cash, a change of clothing, a loaded .357 Magnum, a United States passport, family pictures, and a disguise kit with a fake goatee and moustache.
Yeah, I don't think so.
Well, my sister died at the hands of an abusive boyfriend in November 2013 in Iowa. She was shot. I was home when the police showed up to deliver the news. My sister was terrified of guns and even made anti-gun artwork in high school. There's absolutely no way she shot herself. My mom has a bag of evidence but I'm much to scared to look in that. The cops let the boyfriend go.
A year or two later my mom's school (she's an elementary school teacher) got put on lockdown because he made threats about shooting the place up. Apparently he's in Tennessee now. I'd love to get some revenge on that loser.
If anyone watched the new Unsolved Mysteries that aired on Netflix a few months ago; the second episode about Patrice Enders pissed me off. You're telling me the husband didn't kill her? Seriously?
He kicked her son out and changed the locks to her house the day she went MISSING, not when she was found like two years later.
Who does that, unless you know she's never coming back? Seriously watch the episode and try to tell me he didn't have some sort of part in it, even if it was just hiring someone else to do it Fargo style.
That my second cousin was killed by his stepdad.
There's no way in hell that a 15 year old, with his backpack on and getting ready to leave for school, could have shot himself in the chest with a shotgun that he would have had to have used his toes to pull the trigger on.
Freaking dummy police ruled it a suicide, even after several family members pointed out their stupidity, and the fact that his stepdad hated my cousin's guts and constantly threatened his life. Miss ya, Jaymie. One day that savage will get his due.
Lizzie Borden killed her parents. I'm very much on the side her father was incredibly abusive and this was her only means of escape. Her step mom probably knew about it and Lizzie always had a strained relationship with her anyway.
For sure. She hated her parents, her father was rich but hoarded money instead of spending it, was an awful guy in general, and then remarried and changed the will so his new wife would inherit everything leaving Lizzie and her sister with nothing.
She had motive. I also think her sister and the maid knew she did it but I don't think they were directly involved other than covering for Lizzie.
This one is close to home for me. We still have no leads. But it for sure was her husband. We all believe it. He never was charged. It's still considered a missing persons, but she's dead. He was crazy and abusive.
John Laurens was murdered by his fellow South Carolinians and it was passed off as a death in a useless skirmish after the war had already been won.
More specifically, Laurens had the ear of Alexander Hamilton, who in turn had the ear of Washington. After the war ended, Hamilton's views towards slavery became decidedly more milquetoast.
Sure, he was opposed to it, but he didn't fight nearly as hard about it as he did for his myriad other views. If Laurens had survived the war, the abolitionist movement would have had an influential Southern ally and it's possible (though this is wild speculation) that the Civil War may not have happened.
Patrice Endres' husband killed her. The way he talks about her like she was an object that he owned. And no innocent person changes the locks on their doors within 24 hours of their spouse going missing.
As insanely creepy as his behavior is due to his "mourning" like kissing the skull (WTAF) and sleeping with the ashes before putting them haphazardly in the closet, I couldn't say that was enough.
People do mourn differently and he is a weird dude. But the locks convinced me. Why would you ever, ever do that if your wife was missing? Especially so incredibly soon? I've read cases about people with loved ones missing for decades who are afraid to move or change things just in case they might come back some day.
The Black Dahlia
A lot of evidence points to a degenerate named George Hodel. He was a physician and also a horrible person. So it lines up pretty well in my eyes.
Steve Hodel really screwed the pooch in terms of having people believe him (his accusations that his dad did it) when he went on to accuse George of basically every serial killing from 1910-1972 or something. But the Root of Evil podcast as well as the TV show does make a compelling case that he was involved.
Tupac was killed by Orlando Anderson.
I really hate the dumb fool conspiracy rumors about the "gOvErNmEnT" killing him when it's clear as day as to what lead to his death in that casino.
Not to mention, Pac and Afeni both stated that he'd die young - Pac in particular stated that he was a hothead and his pride would cause him problems, so he was very self aware of his actions that would lead to his demise.
Lady in my hometown went missing after dropping her middle school age children off at home and leaving again. She just didn't come back. We all thought her (going through a divorce) husband killed her because he lawyered up and refused to let the police search his computer or his lake house. Months go by. No trace. Someone notices one day that a large landscaping rock on the edge of the mountain is missing and then reports it stolen.
The same time someone else tells the tipline that they saw a lady and Jeep matching her description trying to turn around by the rock, months ago. The investigators follow the path of where the rock would have rolled down the mountain and find the rock, then a little ahead, the missing lady and her purse laying there, then several yards down, her Jeep crashed into a tree. It was extremely sad case.
My aunt was murdered by her boyfriend and made to look like a suicide. I'm absolutely certain of it but will never be able to prove it without a confession as the police are not interested in following it up.
The murder itself was obviously solved but I'm convinced that Chris Watts' mistress helped him plan the murder of his wife and two daughters. Investigators said they didn't look into her much because Chris plead guilty.
I believe this 100.
It was the Charles Lindbergh Jr Kidnapping. I learned about this case in school when we were doing a mock trial unit in 8th grade. The person who was accused named Bruno Richard Hauptmann was found guilty ad executed but the trial seemed very fishy. I went looking more in-depth about it and thought of a hypothesis that it was Isidor Fisch, Bruno's friend and Charles Lindbergh was an accomplice.
Not a human murder....
But on Tiger king the person who 'broke' in and set fire to that building killing the alligators was 100% his general manager. The CCTV footage showed the way the man walked after setting the fire and there was a clear limp on the same leg that guy had a prosthetic.
I truly believe Jack The Ripper was Frederick Bailey Deeming.
It's just a theory, and probably an outlandish one, but I'm fascinated by the idea that the reason the last murder was so much more violent and was indoors is because the last victim was actually the killer.
She killed other prostitutes, got away with it for the general public because she was a woman and could easily run around at all hours covered in blood by saying she was a midwife (if she actually used to be one it also explains the anatomical knowledge), and the prostitutes fixed the problem amongst themselves by killing her, showing their anger in how she died. It would explain why the murders ended after that.
Robert Wagner killed Natalie Wood, 100%
Like they were all drunk and he got into an argument with wood and pushed her into the water, not knowing she can't swim. and because they were drunk, he didn't bother to try to save her.
I know what you're thinking... "Yeah right, there's no way there are any EX flat earthers out there..." I had the same thought when I first saw the Reddit thread I'm about to share with you. But it turns out, there are - and they're much more willing to speak than people might think.