After having grown up inside the protective environment that was your childhood home, the inevitable time to leave and carve out your own path without a safety net can be terrifying.
Emotions can vary–with some people itching to leave their trappings while others terrified of adulting in the real world.
Curious to hear experiences from strangers online, Redditor WallStreetDoesntBet asked:
"People who moved out of the parent’s house before 30, how?"
Most people can't afford to live on their own.
Roommate Is Key
"yeah this exactly. I've never lived by myself, was roommates until I got a serious girlfriend and now fiance. There's exactly 0% chance of me being in the same position I'm in financially if I had been paying full rent all those years."
Not A Care In The World
"I was 17, we had 4 of us in a ghetto 2bd apt (bunkbeds) we had a beer bong on a lanyard screwed to the ceiling. We'd have keggers, party's every weekend and always had randoms crashing on the floor. Could barely afford to feed myself and pay bills but still not a worry in the world and it was the best time of my life."
One inconvenience shared by many was the sacrifice of a good, home-cooked meal.
Change Of Scenery
"Just needed a little R&R."
"Roommates and Ramen."
The "Wild" Years
"This, lol. I was kicked out at 16 and after couch-surfing for a few months I moved into a studio apartment with 4 other people."
"When I say we were poor, I mean poor - most of us didn’t have jobs. I lived off the worst of the worst food. Knockoff ramen. Dollar store canned veg. Rice and terrible year old pasta."
"It was a wild few years."
Rice For Life
"Or rice. I lived off rice for a full year. Fancied it up by adding some salsa, and then extra fancy by also adding ranch dressing."
"Those were hard times."
Having work definitely makes things easier.
Saving Up To Leave
"Started working while I was in school. Got out as soon as I could."
Not Much Fanfare
"Yep, moved out for college in 2006. Came back for the summer in 2007, but thereafter I got an internship so I just stayed in the city. Got a job at the same place after I graduated."
"It was never some big moment for me (my parents are fine, just annoying), just a natural progression for me."
Building A Life
"At 18. Worked in construction. Lived on a couch with 6 buddies in one house paying for college. Bought cheap land during the recession. Then built my own house."
Not moving out by choice seemed to be a common shared experience.
High Turnover Rate
"Got kicked out at 14. Finished high school sleeping on friends couches while serving tables. Had a ton of roommates for the next 10 years. At any given time I was living with like 3 or 4 people, it was never boring haha"
"I am hearing that so many people are actually kicked out in the really young age is well."
"But i am not getting that why parents are so tough because in my country they try to keep them under their wings."
"My friends parents were going to kick him out immediately after he graduated high school simply because 'That's what their parents did when they were his age.' His Dad fully expected him to go out at 18 and buy a house because 'he was able to.'"
"Then his Dad got pissed when my friend did not buy a house and went to live with his uncle instead. Even after his uncle broke down the whole 'Your mortgage is $2200/month with taxes and you expect your son, who works part time at $7.25 an hour to afford a mortgage? With no credit history?'"
"Some parents do it out of tough love. Some parents do it because they shouldn't have had children. Some parents still think the world is the same as it was in the 70s-80s and think minimum wage part time employees can thrive."
"My parents didn't kick me out, but there was definitely an expectation for me to be moved out and financially independent at 18. My mother walked into a job as a radio DJ at the age of 18 and then became a journalist with only a high school education a few years later (early 1970s), so she had this expectation that I could do the same. The thought of me being able to do anything like that in the 2000s was laughable."
I moved out of my parents' house because I booked my first professional gig on a cruise ship.
It couldn't have worked out better. I was paid to perform on board in the shows while my rent was already taken care of since I lived and worked on the ship.
I packed one suitcase and traveled the world doing what I loved for about two years. It was the best way to transition into an exciting new chapter in my adolescent life.
What's your moving out story?
Often times you learn just how creative a kid is when they're being deceitful.
Homework and assignments are going to be late sometimes.
It's a part of the school cycle.
Instead of getting miffed, take solace in the off-the-wall, nonsensical excuses students come up with.
Back in my day, that first 10 minutes of class was practically a comedy hour.
I mean talk about Oscar worthy performances...
Sometimes you just have to laugh.
Redditor blobbytheblobfish2 wanted to talk about all the reasons behind students turning work in off schedule.
So they asked:
"Teachers of reddit, what's the funniest excuse for being late, not doing homework, etc... you've ever heard from a student?
My go to was always killing off family members.
My life was a massacre for awhile in high school.
Mr. GBaby Boomers Ok GIF by OriginalsGiphy
“'Not gonna lie Mr. G, I got in an argument with ****** in the hall. He wants to fight me at lunch. I don’t wanna wuss out but I’d lose that, can you come stop him before he starts s**t?'”
"9th graders are wild."
In a What?!
"I was late once cuz someone threw my bike in a tree. There was no room in the rack so I just threaded the lock through the frame and both wheels. Someone must have tried to steal it and then got frustrated when it wouldn't ride and threw it up into a f**king tree. It took me a while to get it down and untangle the bike lock but luckily I had a photo of it in the tree to show my professor."
"Not a teacher, but I remember in 7th grade a kid walked in a few minutes late and the teacher asked why. Kid said he was looking for a screwdriver because his belt broke. Teacher said he wasn't buying it and told the kid to sit down. Kid said fine, took 2 steps, then his pants fell to his ankles in front of everyone. It was freaking hilarious and perfectly timed comedically."
"My mother was a high school teacher over a decade ago, and once had a student come in half way through the first class and say he was late because he was 'escaping from the pigs.' She didn’t really think much of it, and ignored him. However he was arrested before school ended. It’s one of her favorite stories to tell. 'Sometimes it’s scarier when they don’t lie to you.'"
What about your Safari?Work Marketing GIF by lamarcamcGiphy
"I had the same kid, tell me twice, that his dog ate his chromebook. He said he used his chromebook as a plate to eat a steak and the dog ate it."
Know the details of your lies kids.
Burgers next timeSeason 7 Nbc GIF by The OfficeGiphy
"My first year teaching, it was 4th grade, and one student informed me that she hadn’t done her reading the night before 'because we had pizza for dinner.' It’s been 20 years and I’m still confused."
"The kid’s homework sheet was ripped in half. He said his sheep ate it. I asked why he had his homework outside with the sheep, and he said he didn’t. The sheep was in his kitchen. I asked why and he said they usually let it in the house. He said this in a tone that was like, 'duh.'"
"So later, I asked another kid, who lived next door to this kid, if his neighbor really had sheep in his kitchen. He’s like, 'yeah. That’s why my mom doesn’t let me eat dinner over there anymore. She thinks it’s unsanitary.'"
"My friend and I used to walk to school together and one day we arrived a bit late and my friend was able to truthfully say 'Sorry we're late Miss. Potnineo got hit by a car.' We had been crossing the road at a pedestrian crossing with traffic lights and the light changed right after I stepped off the curb, and I guess the driver was so focused on the green light that he didn't even notice I was still passing in front of his car."
"He started to pull forward, hit me (very slowly obvs), I wasn't hurt but was very startled so I screamed and slammed my hands on his car bonnet to steady myself and not fall under the car. The driver proceeded to yell at me for hitting his car and then drive off. We were already running late anyway and the car incident was over within a few seconds, but it made a great excuse."
"Cows got out last night and I had to chase them home all night. I knew the kid and the family so it wasn't a lie. Good kid who was obviously tired. I told him not to worry about missed homework."
"I used to be the manager of a fast food place in a rural town. There was once a cow in the drive through. It did not respond to me yelling at it. I didn’t get paid enough for that sh*t."
You're ExcusedTwo Thumbs Up GIF by TV LandGiphy
"'Please excuse Janet from class today. She is in the hospital having her baby' (brought to me by a sibling)."
"'Please excuse Robbie for yesterday. He was home with the Shitt*ns.'"
Kids are funny. Until they're crazy.
Do you have any hilarious excuses that you or your classmates have used? Let us know in the comments below.
There are a number of industries which, owing to business practices and perception in the media, are commonly associated as being evil.
These include nuclear power, big pharma, and healthcare, at least in the United States, while some retail services such as Amazon are notorious for the poor working conditions in their factories.
However, are any industries or businesses wholly without sin?
We might find ourselves surprised what goes on behind closed doors of industries we've come to trust as ethical and without fault.
"What industry is a lot shadier than it seems?"
They Make Them An Offer They Can't Refuse.
"My dad knows a story from someone who works for a nationwide grocery chain, they have to deal with an Italian mafia to import balsamic vinegar."- tokyokillswhaleAroused Grocery Store GIF by TravisGiphy
Life On The Seas...
"The maritime industry. "
"Most of the big companies do things by the book and treat crews well because they’re afraid of lawsuits and unions, but many smaller 'mom and pop' companies break laws and violate safety regulations with reckless abandon because they’re not as visible and can 'stay under the radar' so to speak."
"It’s very common for a small company to ask a captain/crew to do something illegal and dangerous in order to increase profit, and for the captain/crew to comply out of fear of losing their jobs."
"And that’s just the US maritime industry."
"Sailors from poorer nations who work on ships are often fed little more than rice and cheap ramen for months at a time and paid pennies for their backbreaking work."
"I love running tugs for a living, but the industry as a whole is rife with shady business."- AbleTourist6
So Many Fish In The Sea
"A lot of hobby fish importing is pretty shady."
"You have farms of certain types of fish like bettas in some areas of the world that are run with the fish in horrible conditions."
"Which is why a lot of the ones you get in a major chain store are sick before you even bring them home."
'Outside of boutique fish farming, the way some wild fish are caught is just horrible."
"The trappers will lightly poison the water supply to knock out the fish, then scoop them out of the water without a care for that area's ecosystem."
"This has led to depletion of some natural species to the point they are now endangered."
"Lastly, boutique fish sellers/major chains do not give half a rat's a** what happens to the fish in the end."
"This means that people who buy fish like plecos, bettas, goldfish, etc. end up getting sick of them and dumping them in local waterways to supposedly get rid of the problem."
'So in some areas, these fish have completely destroyed the local water ecology because, like other invasive land species, they were never meant to be there."
"One of the worst offenders is the lionfish in Florida."
"It's venomous and has no natural predators so its population has exploded out of control."
"The same is true of plecos and goldfish.
"Basically releasing fish into the wild is a terrible idea."
"Releasing any animal into the wild can have disastrous consequences, but fish are being released into a very limited ecosystem and outside of a few diseases, if they can adapt to the water and have no predators they will survive and breed incredibly quickly."
"I love my fish, I love the hobby, and there's a lot of value to it as global warming may make things like reef tanks a valuable source of coral in the future."
"But there's also a lot of bad to it."- beepborpimajorpCat Thank GIFGiphy
"Rating services like Yelp."
" Refuse to advertise and your good reviews magically get rearranged."
"Hey, look if you want to do that and be transparent, I get it."
"But most every business owner knows how scummy this is and most clients just have no idea."
"I have a business that isn't something that would usually be looked for on Yelp.'
"They called and I just froze.'
"Luckily I do long term rentals and was sold out."
"Explained I wouldn't have an opening for months, they seemed to leave me alone."
"Yet they have my business on the front page of Google search, under the wrong category.'- chinmakes5
Just Try A Balanced Diet!
"It's gotten better, but there's still a lot of half-truths and whole lies."
"Not all that long ago it was seriously like the wild wild west."- LaquandaSchuttPills GIFGiphy
Trust No One!
"All industries are shadier than they seem."
"I used to work for a flute manufacturer and it was shady as hell."- pajmahal
Take a Closer Look...
"You have no idea the snow job they put most people through when it comes to buying them."
"It's far, far worse than trying to buy a new car from a dealership."
"Wholesale frames are about $5-20, wholesale lens blanks are another $10."
"Any kind of dip coating, UV, tinting, etc, is negligible cost and effort to apply, literally pennies."
"To top it off, they don't even do a whole lot in house, but send it to 'labs' which are basically sweatshops that can take up to 2-3 weeks when labor time is literally under 5 minutes."
"Instead of training real opticians and technicians, they're just glorified sales staff now."
"Most of the time they don't even bother with proper measurement for pd, frame width, or arm fitting."
"Was an optician in the early 90's."
"I'm horrified at what the business has become."- PolecatEZ
It's harder to avoid putting money in an industry to which we have numerous moral objectinons than we would like to admit.
But who knows if our favorite stores, which we frequent with regularity, are any better?
Maybe ignorance is bliss?
Or maybe we need to raise stronger objections....
There's nothing worse than finding out that your significant other had been unfaithful.
Actually, there is something worse.
That is, walking in on the person with whom you have been romantically involved engaging in sexual intercourse with someone else. In your bed.
Unfortunately for many couples, this is a reality that inevitably contributes to the demise of a relationship that was never really a healthy one to begin with.
Curious to hear how couples ended up going their separate ways, Redditor pugsarelife2 asked:
"Men and women of reddit who caught their significant others cheating, how did you do that? And what was your reaction?"
These Redditors had tasks that uncovered a very unpleasant surprise.
"My ex husband and his family smoked a lot of pot, still do. His sister, kids, and nanny were visiting from out of state for a few weeks. When it was time to fly home they left their stash at my ex MILs house because they didn’t want to take it on the plane. My ex asked if I would pick it up because I was nearby. Stupidly I agree. I don’t smoke and I was willing to carry it in my car for him. To my surprise I found a note from the nanny to my ex saying she was in love with him and she was so happy for the time they had together. Obviously she thought he would get the weed instead of me. While it was incredibly painful at the time I am definitely living my best life 15 years later."
"Me ex-husband was an early adopter of sending d*ck pics. I got his phone to get the numbers of his friends to invite them to a surprise birthday party while he was sleeping off a hangover, and there they were in his outbox."
"ETA- this was more than 12 years ago. When camera phones were barely functional."
How long has this been going on? That's what these Redditors were left pondering after making their shocking discoveries.
Keeping It In The Family
"Worst one I know of is an acquaintance of mine, came home from work one day and found his missus having sex with his dad."
"That blew up all over Facebook, and became a local drama fest where people tried to organise a shunning of the dad and missus."
"I remember it well because, well... I know people cheat, but with your partners father? Come on..."
"Wife was acting unusual for a few weeks. She would want to spend time by herself on the weekends and when she came home at night from work she would often sit in the driveway for 20 minutes on the phone."
"I'm not dumb."
"I bought a voice activated digital recorder and stuck it in her car. I knew what I needed to know in less than 24 hours."
"I was in the Navy and was out on deployment for 6 months after just recently getting engaged (it's one of those stupid things that young military guys do). One day i get a letter from my fiance's best friend telling me that she caught my fiancee and her BF together (this was years before email and smartphones were common). We write back and forth several times and eventually it comes out how she caught them, how my fiancee begged her not to tell me, and that the fiancee didn't know that we were corresponding."
"I eventually get back to the States and planned to play it off as though I didn't know, but too many of my friends intercepted me with the news that is wasn't just the one guy, but several, and let me know that she knew that I was aware. Eventually we met, and the confrontation was minimal and tame. We broke off the engagement without a lot of drama - she kept the ring."
"The best friend and I ended up hooking up, at first as sort of a revenge-f'k kinda thing, but turned serious."
"We celebrate our 32nd wedding anniversary this year."
"Edit: maths. This year will be 31. After 20, it's all a blur."
No matter how hard these significant others downplayed their predicaments, it was painfully obvious they were being unfaithful.
Revealing Text Thread
"My ex was a big drinker and I wasn’t. She would frequent this bar close to our place pretty often with friends. I rarely went because I just wasn’t a fan of bars or her drinking friends. One night she went out with a couple that I didn’t mind that much. I was bored at home so I decided to head over for a little bit. As I walk in I see my ex sitting at the bar with the couple. The bar was packed and as soon as I made eye contact my ex she had this strange look on her face. She turns to this guy sitting next to her, and he immediately gets up and leaves.
"I felt something strange right away, but I brushed it off as me being irrational. I stayed for like an hour and headed home. I couldn’t shake the feeling I had though so I checked one of her friend’s Facebook page to see if there was any connection that existed between my ex and this random dude. Sure enough he was friends with one of my ex’s friends."
"I knew his name now and that I wasn’t as crazy as I thought. I sat on the information though. The next weekend she goes out drinking again and still had not returned home at 4 am. I tried contacting her multiple times and I got no response. I woke up to her coming home at 7 am and jumping in the shower immediately. I decided to check her phone while she was in the shower, and she kept all of the messages with this same guy."
"Some pretty telling information in the text thread. While she was still showering I grabbed a fresh pair of clothes and headed to my best friends house. 20 minutes later I get a phone call with her going ape sh*t about me leaving and not saying anything. I laughed at the projection, told her that if she wasn’t moved out by Monday the police would be there to force her out. She wasn’t on the lease and her parents lived 10 minutes away from me. That was that."
"We were together for 5 years, living together for around 4. I came home from work early. When I got out of my car I saw her peek through the blinds to see who was outside. I walked in the door to her coworker on the couch, obviously uncomfortable and clothes messy and her locked in the bathroom."
"I wanted to pummel the sh*t out of him then and there, but he was a trained MMA fighter, and I woulda left the house that night with more than a broken heart. Went to a friends house for a while."
"They started dating the next day."
"Sh*t sucks. It took a while for me to get trust back in relationships."
Side Effect Of Cheating
"Went for my yearly check up and tested positive for chlamydia. Turns out my ex was sleeping around."
"Edit: apparently false positives are common with these types of tests so have your SO tested as well. I hope you're in a relationship where you can openly talk about such things."
The Instagram Clue
"It wasn’t a big dam-breaking moment. It was a lot of little things. Like how she’d cancel plans at the last second. Or the random phone calls from unknown numbers she’d get (this was back before spam calls were an epidemic), or how her phone was mysteriously off one night when I needed to get a hold of her."
"I had my suspicions and then finally it clicked into place when I did some Instagram snooping and found a guy who followed her who posted a selfie wearing a very unique jacket that belonged to her."
"I confronted her the next day. She denied it. Tears. Begging. All of that. I dumped her and walked away. The next day I messaged that guy on Instagram and he confirmed everything. Had no idea I existed. He dumped her too."
"Last I heard she’s an EMT in
Utah Wyoming. Hope she figured out how not to be a garbage person."
Monogamy is tricky. Every couple on the surface endeavors to be faithful, but having a wandering eye is a normal and very natural instinct.
But acting on impulse to knowingly hurt a significant other through infidelity is cruel and it is what separates the looky-loos from the cheaters.
Is it better to have an open relationship? Or is it better to assume your significant other will always be on their best behavior and respect you and the relationship?
Because when you find out your lover has been cheating on you, it's clearly an indication that something in the relationship wasn't working.
While I'm no love expert, I know that having painful but honest conversations with the person you love can prevent a lot of heartache down the line.
Are you willing to have these discussions? What prevents you from communication? We'd love to hear your thoughts.
Weddings can be a lot of things: a beautiful ceremony, the celebration of a love story, an incredibly fun party.
They can also be absolute stress fests, anticipation central, and in some cases, a lot of unnecessary pomp and circumstance.
However, all of that is to be expected. What we’re talking about today is those few weddings where everything goes wrong, secrets are revealed, or inappropriate behavior ensues. Those weddings that turn so awkward, it makes everyone cringe.
Redditors have plenty of those stories.
Curious to hear them, Redditor ThumbnaiCom asked:
“What in weddings makes you cringe?”
"It Was Always You"
"I recently went to a wedding where the bride and groom had signs and décor with "It was always you" everywhere. When the bride and groom met, the bride was one of three women the groom was dating. They spent a decade cheating on all of their partners to be with each other before they finally got together. But I guess that was all ok because "it was always you." What a weird thing to highlight with your decorations at your wedding."
Heard That Too Many Times
"All the old people making comments about all the sex the couple is about to have."
"“Are we going to get earthquakes tonight under your suite??” Ew"
"I love this comment because my grandmother STILL makes comments on my sex life every time i talk to her. I've been with him for 10 years already and we have an 8 year old but in her mind we are like rabbits."
Winged Creature By Any Other Name
"Releasing of doves into the sky...."
"At my wedding I will release rats into the crowd."
"Holy ratrimony. Squeak now or forever hold your cheese."
It's HER Day
"When some else proposes to their SO, like why take all the attention from the bride and groom and put it on yourself instead? It’s so selfish"
"I once took a course in etiquette and one of the big rules at a wedding is to NEVER EVER steal the spotlight from the bride and groom! That means women should not wear their prettiest dress, but something that is still good but not too pretty that it takes away the spotlight from the bride. Same with the men: usually just a suit will do fine, but do not wear a tie with a pattern of an electric guitar, or heavy makeup if you're into that or something like that. Again: Nothing that attracts attention from the bride and groom."
"So NO, do not propose to your SO at a wedding! Especially not in the style of knocking the glass and go "Excuse me, excuse me...!!" before asking her to marry you."
Gross Upon Gross
"They had a flower toss and a garter toss."
"The flower toss was brutal in that the women fought for the bouquet, and some poor 15 year old girl (I knew her vaguely from online BBSes) managed to get it against her will. Ok, this is bad enough, but it gets so much worse. They dragged her on stage to catch it and she definitely didn't want this. She was painfully shy and probably had an anxiety disorder. This was not a good day for her."
"The garter toss was so much worse though. We were all literally dragged onto the stage (hint: if you have to physically force someone on stage, they don't want to be there!) It was awkward because everyone knew the girl was 15 and of course, underage and she looked like she wanted to cry and gtfo out there so most of us guys were kind of looking awkward."
"The garter is tossed and pretty much every guy avoids it like the plague and it bounced off my head so I grabbed it before they could get it. I did notice the other guys kind of ran interference on them thankfully."
"I go up to the girl (I'm in my mid 20s) and say "don't worry, I'll be cool about this" and I slid the garter over her foot and all the way up to her...ankle. I stopped and glared at everyone. She was so visibly relieved that I didn't try to make a thing, but so many people got pissed at me that I wouldn't play the game."
Attack Of The Clones
"The trend of wanting the women in the wedding party to look alike, even to the point of asking them to change their hair color. Along with that goes giving specific directions as to what guests may wear."
"to be fair to the bride about having the bridesmaids all look the same ....."
"Originally they were so that the devil would not be able to figure out which one was the actual bride and couldn't steal her. yes, this was a thing they believed back in the early days of marriages. That the devil would try to steal the bride on her wedding day. So all the bridesmaids had to dress the same to confuse him."
"Also, to be fair, at that point in time marriages were about social and financial stability not love, and many brides were being married to much older men while they were still very young, like 9-10 years old. I can only imagine how many of them wanted the devil to steal them so they didn't have to be married to someone the same age as their father."
"I went to a wedding in the last year where about HALF of the allotted dance floor time was spent on choreographed dances by the wedding party. It was cute…but after like the 5th interruption, my friend and I said screw it and went outside to just chat and drink."
"Even worse, my partner was in the wedding party and told me how they weren’t informed or given any information/moves for these dances until about 48 hours beforehand."
"The bride was very much the “theater person” type so I guess I wasn’t too surprised having been to those types of weddings before but don’t drag your friends down with you in your pursuit of the ultimate cringe."
"I’m MOH in my best friends wedding I’m a few weeks and one of the other bridesmaid suggested learning a dance and I was like, yea, no."
"Act Of Violence"
"Smashing the slice of cake in each other's face."
"I heard a great response to someone asking if the bride was going to do this.:
"She said if he takes that cakes and smashes it into my face ruining my hair, makeup, and dress, there won't be a reception, there will be me finding a divorce lawyer. I actually can't blame her. No she wasn't a Bridezilla, she was just a person who wanted to look good on one of the most important days of her life."
"No cakes were smashed."
"Someone asked me if I was going to do this to my hubby and I said "Why would I want to start my marriage with an act of Violence?" My husband had the same opinion."
"Reminds me of the cake smash of frosting I got in my eye. My wife kept whispering to me the next fifteen minutes to stop wiping my eye and blinking profusely."
Awkward Music Momentsc
"I went to a wedding the other night where each member of the wedding party had their own theme song like at a baseball game, as they walked down the aisle. The bride walked own the aisle to another one bites the dust."
"I went to a wedding where when the officiant asked the groom The Question, and instead of saying “I do” like a normal person, the groom had the DJ play the jeopardy theme song while he pretended to think about his answer."
"Maybe the worst part of weddings is when either the bride or groom have some deep dark secret and then it's unleashed during the wedding, like the "groom slept with the maid of honor the night before the wedding" or something real sh*tty. My cousin use to work with a caterer and often shared horror stories, but the one she won't forget is when one bride got super angry at her new husband over some small issue. She became a "bridezilla" and physically attacked him and was taken away by police and the husband had to get stitches. Turns out the bride had been in and out of anger management, but the groom chose to stay by her side while they were dating and through the engagement. The groom's family and many of the groom's friends had no idea about her anger issues and the groom kept it secret from them. Not entirely sure if he chose to stay with her after that."
Makes me almost scared to get married!
So, do you have any wedding horror stories? Let us know in the comments below.